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Definicija riječi "the":
rate 1. airport Name: Senador Petrônio Portella Regional Airport; location: Teresina, Piauí, Brazil; IATA Code: THE; ICAO Code: SBTE
rate 2. anagram eth
rate 3. E N O U G H (determiner) enough I'd like to go out this evening, but I don't think I've got the energy. I don't think he has the experience for this kind of work. I haven't got the time to talk to you now. (+ to infinitive)
rate 4. Used in the context of general equities. The opening. Antithesis of the Close.
rate 5. Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
rate 6. Monthly journal of literature and opinion, one of the oldest and most respected of United States reviews. Published in Boston, it was founded in 1857 by Moses Dresser Phillips. It soon became noted for the quality of its fiction and general articles, contributed by distinguished editors and authors such as James Russell Lowell, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry W. Longfellow and Oliver Wendell Holmes. In the early 1920s it expanded its scope to political affairs, featuring articles by figures such as Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson and Booker T. Washington. In the 1970s increasing costs nearly shut down the magazine; it was purchased in 1980 by Mortimer B. Zuckerman and was sold to the National Journal Group in 1999.
rate 7. orig. M&#012B;rze &#02BD;Al&#012B; Mu&#1E25;ammad of Sh&#012B;rez; born October 20, 1819, or October 8, 1820, Sh&#012B;rez, Iran; died July 9, 1850, Tabriz; Iranian religious leader who founded the Beb&#012B; religion and was one of the central figures of Bahe&#012B;. The son of a merchant, he was influenced by the Shaykh&#012B; school of Sh&#012B;ite Islam. In 1844 he wrote a commentary on the s&#016B;rah of Joseph in the Qur&#02BE;en and declared himself the Beb (Arabic: "Gateway") to the hidden imam. Later he would claim to be the imam himself and finally a divine manifestation. The same year he assembled 18 disciples, who spread the new faith in the various Persian provinces. He had popular support but was opposed by members of the religious class and he was arrested near Tehren in 1847 and imprisoned. Meeting at Badasht in 1848, his followers, the Azal&#012B;, formally broke with Islam. The Beb was executed by a firing squad at Tabriz in 1850.
rate 8. officially Commonwealth of The Bahamas; Archipelago and nation consisting of about 700 islands and numerous cays, northwestern edge of the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. Area: 5,386 sq mi (13,950 sq km). Population (2002 estimated): 309,000. Capital: Nassau (on New Providence Island). The people are a blend of African and European ancestry, the former a legacy of the slave trade. Language: English (official). Religion: Christianity. Currency: Bahamian dollar. Chief among the islands, from north to south, are Grand Bahama, Abaco, Eleuthera, New Providence, Andros, Cat and Inagua; New Providence has most of the population. All are composed of coraline limestone and lie mostly only a few feet above sea level; the highest point is Mount Alvernia (206 ft (63 m)) on Cat Island. There are no rivers. The country's market economy is heavily dependent on tourism, for which gambling is a particular attraction and on international financial services. Most foodstuffs are imported from the United States fish and rum are significant exports. It is a constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses; its chief of state is the British monarch, represented by a governor-general and the head of government is the prime minister. The islands were inhabited by Lucayan Indians when Christopher Columbus sighted them on October 12, 1492. He is thought to have landed on San Salvador (Watling) Island. The Spaniards made no attempt to settle but carried out slave raids that depopulated the islands; when English settlers arrived in 1648 from Bermuda, the islands were uninhabited. They became a haunt of pirates and buccaneers and few of the ensuing settlements prospered. The islands enjoyed some prosperity following the American Revolution, when loyalists fled the United States and established cotton plantations there. They were a centre for blockade runners during the American Civil War. Not until the development of tourism after World War II did permanent economic prosperity arrive. The Bahamas was granted internal self-government in 1964 and became independent in 1973.
rate 9. known as the Venerable Bede; born 672/673, traditionally Monkton in Jarrow, Northumbria (Eng.); died May 25, 735, Jarrow; feast day May 25; Anglo-Saxon theologian, historian and chronologist. Raised in a monastery, he was ordained a priest at age 30. He is best known for his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (732?), tracing Britain's history from 55 BC to AD 597, a source vital to the history of the conversion to Christianity of the Anglo-Saxon tribes in Britain. His method of dating events from the time of Christ's birth (AD) came into general use through the popularity of the Historia ecclesiastica and two works on chronology.
rate 10. German; "The Blue Rider"; Organization of Expressionist artists formed in Munich in 1911 by Vasily Kandinsky and Franz Marc. The name derived from a volume of essays and illustrations they published. Other members included Paul Klee and August Macke (1887–1914). Influenced by Jugendstil, Cubism and Futurism but lacking a specific program or philosophy, they exhibited with an international group, including Georges Braque, André Derain and Pablo Picasso. The group disintegrated at the outbreak of World War I.
rate 11. known as The Liberator; born July 24, 1783, Caracas, New Granada; died Dec. 17, 1830, near Santa Maria, Colombia; South American soldier and statesman who led the revolutions against Spanish rule in New Granada (now Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador), Peru and Upper Peru (now Bolivia). The son of a Venezuelan aristocrat, Bolívar received a European education. Influenced by European rationalism, he joined Venezuela's independence movement and became a prominent political and military leader. The revolutionaries expelled Venezuela's Spanish governor (1810) and declared the nation's independence in 1811. The young republic was defeated by the Spanish in 1814 and Bolívar went into exile. In 1819 he undertook a daring attack on New Granada, leading some 2,500 men over routes considered impassable. Taking the Spanish by surprise, he defeated them quickly. With the help of Antonio Sucre, he secured the independence of Ecuador in 1822. He completed José de San Martín's revolutionary work in Peru, freeing that country in 1824. On Bolívar's orders, Sucre liberated Upper Peru (1825). As president of both Colombia (1821–30) and Peru (1823–29), Bolívar oversaw the creation in 1826 of a league of Hispanic American states, but the new states soon began warring among themselves. Less successful at ruling countries than at liberating them, Bolívar exiled himself and died on his way to Europe.
rate 12. Daily newspaper published in Boston, one of the more influential newspapers in the United States Founded in 1872, it was purchased in 1877 by Charles H. Taylor. Under his leadership, it began publishing morning and evening editions, increased local and regional coverage and introduced big headlines, especially on sensational stories. In the 20th century, still headed by the Taylor family, the paper began providing more national and international news while maintaining a generally liberal editorial stance. The New York Times Co. acquired the Globe in 1993.
rate 13. German; "The Bridge"; Organization of German Expressionist artists. It was founded in 1905 by four architectural students at the Dresden Technical School, including Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, who were soon joined by other German and European artists. Its name reflects their hope that their work would be a bridge to the art of the future. Strongly influenced by primitive art, German Gothic woodcuts and the prints of Edvard Munch, they produced figure paintings and portraits depicting human suffering and anxiety, as well as still lifes and landscapes characterized by harshly distorted shapes and violent colours. They contributed to the 20th-century revival of the woodcut. The group disbanded in 1913.
rate 14. Irish Táin Bó Cúailgne; Irish narrative, the longest of the Ulster cycle. It was composed in prose with verse passages in the 7th–8th century, probably by an author acquainted with such epics as the Aeneid. Its hero is Cú Chulainn, who singlehandedly held off the Connaught army that invaded Ulster to capture a famous and valuable brown bull. After three days of battle, Cú Chulainn gained victory, yet the Connaughts successfully captured the bull. Madb, the warrior-queen of Connaught, secured her superiority over her husband Ailill when the brown bull defeated Ailill's white-horned bull.
rate 15. Daily newspaper of national and international news and features, published Monday through Friday in Boston under the auspices of the Church of Christ, Scientist. Established in 1908 at the urging of Mary Baker Eddy as a protest against the sensationalism of the popular press, it became one of the most respected United States newspapers, famous for its thoughtful treatment of the news and for the quality of its assessments of political, social and economic developments. It strictly limits the kinds of advertising it accepts. It maintains its own bureaus to gather news abroad and publishes a weekly world edition. The newspaper won its sixth Pulitzer Prize in 1996, in the category of international reporting.
rate 16. Spanish El Cid orig. Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar; born 1043, Vivar, near Burgos, Castile; died July 10, 1099, Valencia; Castilian military leader and national hero. His popular name, El Cid (from Spanish Arabic al-sid, "lord"), dates from his lifetime. Brought up at the court of Ferdinand I, the Cid served the king's eldest son, Sancho II, in his campaign to gain control of León. On Sancho's death he shifted to the service of Alfonso VI, whom he had formerly opposed. His unauthorized raid on the Moorish kingdom of Toledo (1081) prompted Alfonso to send him into exile. He then entered the service of the Muslim rulers of Zaragoza, becoming known as a general who was never defeated in battle. Alfonso tried unsuccessfully to win him back during the Almoravid invasion of Spain. The Cid maneuvered to gain control of the Moorish kingdom of Valencia, finally succeeding in 1094. He was speedily elevated to the status of national hero and his exploits were celebrated in a heroic biography and a famous 12th-century epic poem.
rate 17. orig. Flavius Valerius Constantius; (Latin; "the Pale"); born 250, Dacia Ripensis; died summer 306, Eboracum, Britain; Roman emperor and father of Constantine I. A member of the tetrarchy (four-person ruling body) with his adoptive father Maximian, Diocletian and Galerius, he was made caesar (subemperor) in the West (293–305) and later caesar augustus (senior emperor) (305–306). As ruler of Gaul, he subdued rebellion in Britain (296), ended piracy, restored the frontier and largely ignored edicts against Christians.
rate 18. Dream-Time; In the religion of the Australian Aboriginals, the mythological time of the Creation. In the Dreaming the environment was shaped and humanized by mythic beings who took animal or human form or changed their form at will. They took long journeys and created human life and the social order. In Aboriginal belief, they are eternal and continue to exist, although they may have traveled beyond the lands of the people who sing about them or may have metamorphosed into natural features such as rocky outcrops or water holes. The landscape is thus sacred to Aboriginal peoples.
rate 19. Weekly magazine of news and opinion, founded in 1843 and published in London, generally regarded as one of the world's preeminent journals of its kind. It gives thorough and wide-ranging coverage of general news and particularly of international political developments that bear on the world's economy. In accord with the views promoted by its founders and conveyed by legendary Economist editor Walter Bagehot, the publication maintains the position that free markets typically provide the best method of running economies and governments. North America accounts for about half of its total readership.
rate 20. Group of United States painters who reacted against the traditions of the National Academy of Design. The original eight; Robert Henri, Everett Shinn (1876–1953), John Sloan, Arthur B. Davies (1862–1928), Ernest Lawson (1873–1939), Maurice Prendergast, George Luks (1867–1933) and William Glackens; were later joined by George Wesley Bellows. In 1908 they exhibited together in New York City. Saloons, tenements, pool halls and slums were among their favourite subjects and their style was rough and realistic. Their careers took various directions and a few years later they were absorbed into the Ash Can school.
rate 21. the Channel French La Manche ("The Sleeve"); Strait between southern England and northern France. It connects the Atlantic Ocean with the North Sea through the Strait of Dover. The French name, La Manche ("The Sleeve"), is a reference to its shape, which gradually narrows from about 112 mi (180 km) in the west to only 21 mi (34 km) in the east, between Dover, Eng. and Calais, France. Historically both a route for and a barrier to invaders of Britain, it developed into one of the world's busiest sea routes for oil tankers and ore carriers. The Channel Tunnel, completed in 1994, provides a land route between Paris and London.
rate 22. later European Community (EC) known as the Common Market; Association of European countries designed to promote European economic unity. It was established by the Treaty of Rome in 1957 to develop the economies of the member states into a single common market and to build a political union of the states of western Europe. The EEC also sought to establish a single commercial policy toward nonmember countries, to coordinate transportation systems, agricultural policies and general economic policies, to remove measures restricting free competition and to assure the mobility of labour, capital and entrepreneurship among member states. The liberalized trade policies it sponsored from the 1950s were highly successful in increasing trade and economic prosperity in western Europe. In 1967 its governing bodies were merged into the European Community. In 1993 the EEC was renamed the European Community (EC); it is now the principal organization within the European Union.
rate 23. formally The Federalist; Eighty-five essays on the proposed Constitution of the United States and the nature of republican government, published in 1787–88 by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay in an effort to persuade voters of New York state to support ratification. Most of the essays first appeared serially in New York newspapers; they were reprinted in other states and then published as a book in 1788. A few of the essays were issued separately later. All were signed "Publius." They presented a masterly exposition of the federal system and the means of attaining the ideals of justice, general welfare and the rights of individuals.
rate 24. The Mighty Five; Group of Russian composers who, in the 1860s, banded together in an attempt to create a truly national school of Russian music. The Five were César Cui (1835–1918), Aleksandr Borodin, Mily Balakirev, Modest Mussorgsky and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov. A somewhat larger group around this core was referred to as "the Mighty Handful."
rate 25. German Friedrich Wilhelm known as the Great Elector; born February 16, 1620, Cölln, near Berlin; died May 9, 1688, Potsdam; Elector of Brandenburg (1640–88) who restored the Hohenzollern dominions after the Thirty Years' War. At his accession to the electorship, Brandenburg was ravaged by war and occupied by foreign troops. He cautiously maintained neutrality between the warring Swedes and Habsburgs, started to build a standing army and added to his territories with the Peace of Westphalia (1648). In the First Northern War (1655–60) he gained sovereignty over the duchy of Prussia. In the complex power struggles in Europe starting in 1661, he shifted allegiance by always joining with the weaker party, hoping to maintain the balance of power. He issued the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, granting asylum to Huguenots expelled from France. When he died, he left a centralized political administration, sound finances and an efficient army, laying the foundation for the future Prussian monarchy.
rate 26. 1648–53 Series of civil wars in France during the minority of Louis XIV. The Fronde (named for the "sling" of a children's game played in the streets of Paris in defiance of authorities) was in part an attempt to check the growing power of royal government, but its failure paved the way for the absolutism of Louis XIV's reign. The first phase, the Fronde of the Parlement (1648–49), was an attempt to place constitutional limits on the queen regent, Anne of Austria and her chief minister, Jules Mazarin. Uprisings forced the government to concede to the Parlement's demands. The more serious second phase, the Fronde of the Princes (1650–53), sprang from aristocratic opposition to Mazarin. The military leader the Great Condé was arrested, causing his friends to rebel (in the so-called first war of the princes). His supporters joined the Parisian party (the Old Fronde) in successfully calling for Condé's release and Mazarin's resignation. Condé lost his position when Anne joined with the Old Fronde against him, precipitating the second war of the princes (1651–53). After losses in battle, he fled. The king entered Paris in triumph in 1652, followed by Mazarin in 1653. The Fronde was the last serious challenge to the monarchy until the French Revolution.
rate 27. officially Republic of the Gambia; Country, western Africa. Constituting an enclave in Senegal, it lies along the Gambia River, stretching inland 295 mi (475 km) from the Atlantic Ocean. Area: 4,127 sq mi (10,689 sq km). Population (2002 estimated): 1,418,000. Capital: Banjul. About two-fifths of the population is Malinke, followed by Fulani (about one-fifth), Wolof (about one-seventh) and other groups. Language: English (official). Religion: Islam. Currency: dalasi. The Gambia has a subtropical climate and is generally hilly, with savanna in the uplands and swamps in low-lying areas. It has a developing market economy based largely on the production and export of peanuts, though only about one-sixth of the land is arable. The river serves as a major transportation artery. Tourism is an important source of revenue. The Gambia is a republic with one legislative body; its head of state and government is the president. Beginning around the 13th century AD, the Wolof, Malinke and Fulani peoples settled in different parts of what is now The Gambia and established villages and then kingdoms in the region. European exploration began when the Portuguese sighted the Gambia River in 1455. In the 17th century, when Britain and France both settled in the area, the British Fort James, on an island about 20 mi (32 km) from the river's mouth, was an important collection point for the slave trade. In 1783 the Treaty of Versailles reserved the Gambia River for Britain. After the British abolished slavery in 1807, they built a fort at the mouth of the river to block the continuing slave trade. In 1889 The Gambia's boundaries were agreed upon by Britain and France; the British declared a protectorate over the area in 1894. Independence was proclaimed in 1965 and The Gambia became a republic within the Commonwealth in 1970. It formed a limited confederation with Senegal in 1982, which was dissolved in 1989. During the 1990s the country faced political problems, but at the beginning of the 21st century its biggest concern was its poor economy.
rate 28. English order of knighthood founded by Edward III in 1348 and considered the highest British honor. Legend holds that it was created after an incident in which Edward was dancing with the Countess of Salisbury, when one of her garters dropped to the floor. As bystanders snickered, Edward gallantly picked up the garter and put it on his own leg, admonishing the courtiers in French with what is now the order's motto, "Honi soit qui mal y pense" ("Shame to him who thinks evil of it"). Membership consists of the British sovereign and the prince of Wales, each with 25 "knight companions."
rate 29. Daily newspaper published in Toronto, the most prestigious and influential journal in Canada. It was formed in 1936 when George McCullagh bought and merged two competing papers, the liberal Globe (founded 1844) and the conservative Mail and Empire (founded 1872 as The Mail). The paper sees its role as "independent but not neutral." Its publication of the texts of speeches, parliamentary debates and other documents has made it Canada's newspaper of record. It is especially strong in international news coverage.
rate 30. Mountain range, western Victoria, Australia. Composed mainly of hard sandstone, the range is noted for deep gorges, weathered rock formations and wildflowers. The highest peak, Mount William, rises to 3,827 ft (1,166 m). The range was named after the Grampian Mountains of Scotland.
rate 31. German die Grünen; Environmentalist political party founded in West Germany in 1979. Initially, it arose out of protests against nuclear power in Germany in the 1970s and later it embraced all forms of environmentalism. In 1979 about 250 ecologist and environmentalist groups merged and the first "green" representative was elected to the state parliament in Bremen. The following year, the organization officially formed itself as a federal party. It called for the dismantling of the Warsaw Pact and NATO and the demilitarization of Europe. It first won representation in the Bundestag in 1983. It experienced almost constant ideological tensions between its left wing and a more pragmatic faction. In 1990 the eastern German Greens joined with Alliance 90, a coalition of various grassroots organizations and won representation in the German national legislature, though the western German Greens failed to win representation. In 1993 the two parties agreed to merge as Alliance 90/The Greens and in 1998 the Greens assumed national political power as a junior coalition partner in the government headed by Social Democratic Party leader Gerhard Schröder.
rate 32. Chain of about 600 islands and islets, southeastern Lesser Antilles, West Indies. The islands span over 60 mi (100 km) at the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea. The northern Grenadines are administratively part of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, while the southern islands are a dependency of Grenada. The Saint Vincent group consists of Bequia, Canouan, Mayreau, Mustique, Union Island and associated islets. Carriacou Island, the largest of the Grenada group, has an area of 13 sq mi (34 sq km). Rainfall is low and few of the islands are inhabited.
rate 33. known as the Brothers Grimm; born January 4, 1785, Hanau, Hesse-Kassel; died September 20, 1863, Berlin;; born February 24, 1786, Hanau; died Dec. 16, 1859, Berlin; German folklorists and philologists. They spent most of their lives in literary research as librarians and professors at the Universities of Göttingen and Berlin. They are most famous for Kinder-und Hausmärchen (1812–15), known in English as Grimm's Fairy Tales, a collection of 200 tales taken mostly from oral sources, which helped establish the science of folklore. Together and separately, they also produced many other scholarly studies and editions. Wilhelm's chief solo work was The German Heroic Tale (1829); Jacob's German Mythology (1835) was a highly influential study of pre-Christian German faith and superstition. Jacob's extensive Deutsche Grammatik (1819–37), on the grammars of all Germanic languages, elaborates the important linguistic principle now known as Grimm's law. In the 1840s the brothers began work on the Deutsches Wörterbuch, a vast historical dictionary of the German language that required several generations to complete and remains the standard work of its kind.; Jacob (right) and Wilhelm Grimm, oil portrait by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann, 1855; in the... Courtesy of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
rate 34. formerly The Manchester Guardian; Influential newspaper published in London and Manchester, Eng.;, considered one of Britain's best papers. Founded in 1821 as the weekly Manchester Guardian, it became a daily in 1855; 100 years later "Manchester" was dropped from the name, as it had become a national daily with an international reputation. In 1936 one of the newspapers most influential editors, C.P. Scott, created the Scott Trust as a means of assuring independent ownership for the newspaper. Still owned by the trust, the paper takes an independent liberal stance in its editorials while maintaining great breadth and depth of news coverage.
rate 35. Region, northern South America. Located on the Atlantic and Caribbean coasts, it lies between the Orinoco, Negro and Amazon rivers and covers an area of about 181,000 sq mi (468,800 sq km). It consists of Guyana (formerly British Guiana), Suriname (formerly Dutch Guiana) and French Guiana; most of it is covered by dense forests containing valuable wood. Settlements are largely confined to the coast and river valleys. The earliest known inhabitants were the Surinam Indians. Its coast was sighted by Christopher Columbus in 1498 and the area was explored by the Spanish in the early 16th century. The Dutch founded settlements ƹ 1580 and the French and English in the early 17th century.
rate 36. Dutch 's-Gravenhage or Den Haag; City (population in 2001 estimated: 442,356), seat of government of The Netherlands. Located 4 mi (6 km) from the North Sea, it is the administrative capital of The Netherlands, home to its court and government, though Amsterdam, located 33 mi (53 km) northwest, is the official capital. The counts of Holland built a castle at The Hague in 1248 that became their principal residence. The complex now forms the Binnenhof in the old quarter of the city, which became the seat of the Dutch government in 1585. The city grew rapidly in the 19th and 20th centuries. A centre of government, international law and corporate administration, most of its businesses are engaged in trade, banking and insurance. The International Court of Justice is housed in the Peace Palace (1913). The city is filled with notable architecture, much of which survived despite the heavy damage inflicted on the city during the German occupation in World War II.
rate 37. known as the Unabomber; born May 22, 1942, Evergreen Park, Ill., United States U.S. criminal. He attended Harvard University and earned a doctorate in mathematics from the University of Michigan. He taught at the University of California-Berkeley (1967–69) then abruptly left for rural Montana, where he lived in a tiny, isolated shack. Over a period of 17 years, he sent mail bombs to people he perceived as enemies of humanity, most of them professors and researchers in science and technology, killing 3 people and injuring 23. His manifesto excoriating industrial society was published widely in 1995. Arrested in 1996 on a tip from his younger brother, he was sentenced to life in prison.
rate 38. the Channel French La Manche ("The Sleeve"); Strait between southern England and northern France. It connects the Atlantic Ocean with the North Sea through the Strait of Dover. The French name, La Manche ("The Sleeve"), is a reference to its shape, which gradually narrows from about 112 mi (180 km) in the west to only 21 mi (34 km) in the east, between Dover, Eng. and Calais, France. Historically both a route for and a barrier to invaders of Britain, it developed into one of the world's busiest sea routes for oil tankers and ore carriers. The Channel Tunnel, completed in 1994, provides a land route between Paris and London.
rate 39. the Channel French La Manche ("The Sleeve"); Strait between southern England and northern France. It connects the Atlantic Ocean with the North Sea through the Strait of Dover. The French name, La Manche ("The Sleeve"), is a reference to its shape, which gradually narrows from about 112 mi (180 km) in the west to only 21 mi (34 km) in the east, between Dover, Eng. and Calais, France. Historically both a route for and a barrier to invaders of Britain, it developed into one of the world's busiest sea routes for oil tankers and ore carriers. The Channel Tunnel, completed in 1994, provides a land route between Paris and London.
rate 40. French; "The Shallows"; Archaeological site at the eastern end of Lake Neuchâtel, Switz. The name by extension applies to a late Iron Age culture of European Celts. La Tène culture originated in the mid-5th century BC, when the Celts came into contact with Greeks and Etruscans. It passed through several phases and regional variations during the next 400 years, as the Celts populated northern Europe and the British Isles and ended in the mid-1st century BC, when most of the Celts came under Roman control. Objects of the early period are characterized by ornamental S-shapes, spirals and round patterns. The middle period is notable for long iron swords, heavy knives and burial in coffins or under stone heaps; findings with a later date, but still of the middle period, include decorated scabbards, broad-bladed spearheads and wooden shields with iron supports. The final period, showing Roman influence, is distinguished by peasant's implements, such as iron sickles, scythes, axes, saws and plowshares.; Gold disk found at Auvers, La Tène culture, 5th century BC. By courtesy of the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris
rate 41. British medical journal established in 1823, published weekly from New York and London. Its founder and first editor, Thomas Wakley, considered at the time a radical reformer, stated that the intent of the new journal was to report on hospital lectures and describe important cases of the day. It has since played a significant role in medical and hospital reform movements in Britain and has become a highly prestigious medical journal around the world.
rate 42. Theatrical avant-garde repertory company. It was formed in New York City in 1947 by Julian Beck (1925–85) and Judith Malina (b. 1926) to produce experimental plays, often on radical themes. Its first big success was Jack Gelber's The Connection (1959), a drama of drug addiction. Its next, Kenneth Brown's The Brig (1963), depicted military discipline as dehumanizing. After problems with United States tax authorities, the company was relocated to Europe (1965–68). It returned to New York City to present the confrontational Paradise Now (1968), a production intended to spark revolution. The group dispersed in 1970.
rate 43. known as the Citizen King; born October 6, 1773, Paris, France; died August 26, 1850, Claremont, Surrey, Eng. King of the French (1830–48). Eldest son of the duke d'Orléans, he supported the new government at the outbreak of the French Revolution and joined the Revolutionary army in 1792 but deserted during the war with Austria (1793) and lived in exile in Switzerland, the United States and England. He returned to France on the restoration of Louis XVIII and joined the liberal opposition. Following the July Revolution (1830) and Charles X's abdication, he was proclaimed the "Citizen King" by Adolphe Thiers and elected by the legislature. During the subsequent July Monarchy, he consolidated his power by steering a middle course between the right-wing monarchists and the socialists and other republicans but resorted to repressive measures because of numerous rebellions and attempts on his life. He strengthened France's position in Europe and cooperated with the British in forcing the Dutch to recognize Belgian independence. Mounting middle-class opposition to his arbritrary rule and his inability to win allegiance from the new industrial classes caused his abdication during the February Revolution of 1848.
rate 44. known as The Swamp Fox; born 1732, Winyah, S.C. died February 26, 1795, Berkeley county, S.C., United States American Revolutionary commander. He fought the Cherokee (1759) and later served as a member of the provincial assembly (1775). In the American Revolution he commanded troops in South Carolina. After the surrender of Gen. Benjamin Lincoln to the British at Charleston, S.C. (1780), he slipped away to the swamps, gathered together his band of guerrillas and began leading bold raids on British positions. For a daring rescue of American troops surrounded by the British at Parkers Ferry, S.C. (1781), he received the thanks of Congress. He was then appointed a brigadier general.
rate 45. Sea channel between the Outer Hebrides islands and the northwestern coast of Scotland. Its width varies from 25 to 45 mi (40 to 70 km) and it has great depth and a rapid current. Little Minch, its southern extension, lies between the island groups of the Outer and Inner Hebrides.
rate 46. French; "The World"; Daily newspaper published in Paris, one of the most important and widely respected newspapers in the world. It was established in 1944, just after the German army left the city, as an independent organ free of government or private subsidies. Covering national and world news in depth from the start, it soon earned a reputation for accuracy and independence. Its writers present their own views, with the result that the paper reveals no consistent ideological outlook, causing it to earn both praise and criticism from every part of the French political spectrum.
rate 47. U.S. weekly journal of opinion, the oldest continuously published United States periodical. Founded in 1865 by Frederick Law Olmsted and Edwin L. Godkin (1831–1902) as a reformist publication, it was sold to the New York Evening Post in 1881 and was a weekly edition of the paper until 1914. While Oswald Garrison Villard (1872–1949) was owner and editor (1918–34), it moved decisively to the political left and has remained there under subsequent owners and editors, as during its outspoken opposition to Sen. Joseph McCarthy and to United States involvement in the Vietnam War. In circulation it is one of the largest intellectual journals in America.
rate 48. officially Kingdom of The Netherlands byname Holland; Country, northwestern Europe. Area: 16,033 sq mi (41,526 sq km). Population (2002 estimated): 16,142,000. Capital: Amsterdam; Seat of Government: The Hague. Most of the people are Dutch. Languages: Dutch (official), English. Religions: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism. Currency: euro. The Netherlands' southern and eastern region consists mostly of plains and a few high ridges; its western and northern region is lower and includes polders on the site of the Zuiderzee and the common delta of the Rhine, Meuse and Schelde rivers. Coastal areas are almost completely below sea level and are protected by dunes and artificial dikes. Although the country is densely populated, it has a low rate of birth. The Netherlands has a developed market economy based largely on financial services, light and heavy industries and trade. It is a constitutional monarchy with a parliament comprising two legislative houses; its chief of state is the monarch and the head of government is the prime minister. Celtic and Germanic tribes inhabited the region at the time of the Roman conquest. Under the Romans trade and industry flourished, but by the mid-3rd century AD Roman power had waned, eroded by resurgent Germanic tribes and the encroachment of the sea. A Germanic invasion (406–407) ended Roman control. The Merovingian dynasty followed the Romans but was supplanted in the 7th century by the Carolingian dynasty, which converted the area to Christianity. After Charlemagne's death in 814, the area was increasingly the target of Viking attacks. It became part of the medieval kingdom of Lotharingia, which avoided incorporation into the Holy Roman Empire by investing its bishops and abbots with secular powers, leading to the establishment of an Imperial Church. In the 12th–14th centuries large areas of land in the Holland-Utrecht peat-bog plain were made available for agriculture and dike building occurred on a large scale; Flanders developed as a textiles centre. The dukes of Burgundy gained control in the late 14th century. By the early 16th century the Low Countries came to be ruled by the Spanish Habsburgs. The Dutch had taken the lead in fishing, shipbuilding and beer brewing, which laid the foundation for Holland's remarkable 17th-century prosperity. Culturally, this was the period of Jan van Eyck, Thomas à Kempis and Desiderius Erasmus. Calvinism and Anabaptist doctrines attracted many followers. In 1581 the seven northern provinces, led by Calvinists, declared their independence from Spain and in 1648, following the Thirty Years' War, Spain recognized Dutch independence. The 17th century was the golden age of Dutch civilization. Benedict de Spinoza and René Descartes enjoyed the country's intellectual freedom and Rembrandt and Johannes Vermeer painted their masterpieces. The Dutch East India Company secured Asian colonies and the country's standard of living soared. In the 18th century Dutch maritime power declined; the region was conquered by the French during the French Revolutionary wars and became the Kingdom of Holland under Napoleon (1806). The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I and declared neutrality in World War II but was occupied by Germany. After the war it lost the Netherlands Indies (Indonesia from 1949) and Netherlands New Guinea (in 1962; now Irian Jaya). It joined NATO in 1949 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community (later renamed the European Community), now part of the European Union. At the outset of the 21st century The Netherlands benefitted from a strong, highly regulated mixed economy but struggled with the social and economic challenges of immigration.
rate 49. Weekly journal of opinion, founded in 1914 by Willard Straight, with Herbert Croly as editor. Long one of the most influential liberal magazines in the U.S., it early reflected the progressive movement and sought reforms in United States government and society. Its popularity declined in the 1920s when liberalism was out of favour but revived in the 1930s. After initially opposing Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration, it supported Roosevelt's New Deal. After becoming editor in 1946, former United States vice president Henry Wallace moved the magazine further left until he was forced to resign. In the early 1980s the magazine began to display an array of commentary reflecting the resurgence of conservatism in United States politics.
rate 50. Morning daily newspaper, long the United States newspaper of record. From its establishment in 1851 it has aimed to avoid sensationalism and to appeal to cultured, intellectual readers. In 1896 it was bought by Adolph Ochs, who built it into an internationally respected daily. Its prestige was notably enhanced by its coverage of the sinking of the Titanic and of the two world wars. In the 1970s it became involved in controversy with its publication of the Pentagon Papers. Later in the decade, under the direction of Ochs's grandson, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, its organization and staff underwent sweeping changes, including the introduction of a national edition printed at regional sites. Today it is perhaps the most respected and influential newspaper in the world. It is the flagship of The New York Times Co., whose interests include other newspapers (including the Boston Globe), magazines and broadcast and electronic media.
rate 51. U.S. weekly magazine, famous for its varied literary fare and humour. It was founded in 1925 by Harold Ross, who was its editor until 1951. Initially focused on New York City's amusements and social and cultural life, it gradually acquired a broader scope, encompassing literature, current affairs and other topics. Aimed at a sophisticated, liberal audience, it became renowned for its short fiction, cartoons, major (occasionally book-length) nonfiction pieces and detailed reviews in the arts. It was sold in 1985 to Samuel I. Newhouse, Jr.. Since Ross, its editors have been William Shawn (1952–87), Robert Gottlieb (1987–92), Tina Brown (1992–98) and David Remnick (from 1998).
rate 52. known as the Liberator; born August 6, 1775, near Cahirciveen, County Kerry, Ire. died May 15, 1847, Genoa, Kingdom of Sardinia; Irish nationalist leader. A lawyer, he gradually became involved in the struggle for Catholic Emancipation, organizing nationwide "aggregate meetings" of Irish Catholics to petition for their legal rights. In 1823 he cofounded the Catholic Association, which won support from Irish political and church leaders. After helping win passage of the 1829 Emancipation Act, which allowed Irish Catholics to serve in the British Parliament, he was elected to the House of Commons. He supported the Whig Party in return for Irish reform measures but became disenchanted with the administration's inaction. In 1839 he formed the Repeal Association to dissolve the Anglo-Irish Act of Union. A series of illegal mass meetings in Ireland led to his arrest for sedition in 1843. After his release in 1844, he faced dissension from William Smith O'Brien's radical Young Ireland movement.
rate 53. Italian; "The Roman Observer"; Daily newspaper published in Vatican City, one of the most influential papers in Italy and the de facto voice of the Holy See. Founded in 1861, it was subsidized by the Vatican from its start and was bought outright in 1890 by Pope Leo XIII. It regularly details the pope's activities and prints the text of papal speeches as the Vatican newspaper of record; it also reports and comments on political developments, stressing editorials and commentary over news and noting the religious and moral implications of events, institutions and trends.
rate 54. Definitive historical dictionary of the English language. It was conceived by London's Philological Society in 1857 and sustained editorial work began in 1879 under James Murray. Published in 10 volumes between 1884 and 1928, it first appeared under its current name in 1933. Its definitions are arranged mostly in order of historical occurrence and illustrated with dated quotations from English-language literature and records. Its second edition was published in 20 volumes in 1989.
rate 55. Vast, grass-covered plain in South America extending west from the Atlantic coast to the Andean foothills, primarily in Argentina. The Argentine Pampas covers 295,000 sq mi (764,000 sq km) and slopes gradually downward from northwest to southeast. The western portion is dry and largely barren; the humid eastern portion is the nation's economic heart. Herds of wild cattle and horses, introduced by the Spaniards and rounded up by Argentina's famed gauchos, roamed the Pampas until the later 19th century, when the land was fenced into huge estancias (ranches). The region is prominent in Argentina's gaucho literature and musical folklore.
rate 56. French la Plaine; In the French Revolution, the centrist deputies in the National Convention. They formed the majority of the assembly's members and were essential to the passage of any measures. Their name derived from their place on the floor of the assembly; above them sat the members of the Mountain, or Montagnard. Led by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, the Plain initially voted with the moderate Girondins but later joined the Montagnards in voting for the execution of Louis XVI. In 1794 they helped overthrow Maximilien de Robespierre and other extreme Jacobins.
rate 57. Spanish; "The Press"; Argentine daily newspaper, widely regarded as the finest Spanish-language newspaper in the world. Founded in Buenos Aires in 1869, it soon broke with the traditional emphasis on propaganda to stress professional, accurate news reporting and independence in editorial opinion. It displayed a concern for human welfare that persisted in the face of government harassment, notably in the 1940s under the regime of Juan Perón. In 1951 it was seized and became a Peronist propaganda organ; after Perón's overthrow, it reappeared as an independent daily in 1956.
rate 58. orig. Tenskwatawa; born March 1768, Old Chillicothe, Ohio; died 1834, Argentine, Kan., United States North American Indian leader. The brother of Tecumseh, he maintained a strong following among the Shawnee on the strength of his 1805 declaration that he had received a message from the "Master of Life" and had contact with the supernatural. Advocating a return to traditional ways of life, he rejected the white man's introduction of alcohol, textile clothing and individual ownership of property and he worked with Tecumseh for an Indian confederacy to resist United States encroachment on Indian land. In Tecumseh's absence he allowed the Shawnee to be drawn into and defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe (1811).
rate 59. also al-Qe&#02BD;idah; (Arabic; "the Base"); Broad-based Islamic militant organization founded in Afghanistan by Osama bin Laden. Its members supported Muslim fighters during the Afghan war of 1979–89; afterward the organization dispersed but continued to oppose secularized Muslim regimes and foreign (notably U.S.) presence in Islamic lands. It staged numerous terrorist attacks, including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the destruction of two United States embassies in Africa in 1998 and a suicide bomb attack against the United States warship Cole in 2000. During that time it merged with other Islamic extremist organizations and eventually reestablished its headquarters in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan, where it trained thousands of Muslim militants. In 2001, 19 such militants staged the September 11 attacks. The United States and allied forces responded by attacking Taliban and al-Qaeda forces in Afghanistan, killing and capturing thousands and driving the remainder into hiding.
rate 60. known as the Red Baron; born May 2, 1892, Breslau, Ger. died April 21, 1918, Vaux-sur-Somme, France; German World War I ace. Born to a famous and wealthy family, he began his military career in 1912 as a cavalry officer. In 1915 he transferred to the air force and in 1916 took command of a fighter group that came to be known as "Richthofen's Flying Circus" for its decorated scarlet planes. He had been acclaimed Germany's greatest aviation ace, credited with shooting down 80 enemy airplanes, before he himself was shot down at age 25.; Manfred, Freiherr (baron) von Richthofen. Pictorial Parade
rate 61. French; "The Six"; Group of young French composers in the 1920s. Named by the critic Henri Collet (1885–1951), the group was made up of Arthur Honegger, Darius Milhaud, Francis Poulenc, Georges Auric (1899–1983), Louis Durey (1888–1979) and Germaine Tailleferre (1892–1983). Their music represents a strong reaction against German Romanticism, as well as against the lush style sometimes termed Impressionism, exemplified by the work of Claude Debussy. Most of Les Six were inspired by the iconoclastic music of Erik Satie and they benefited from the promotion of Jean Cocteau. They were only active as a group for a few years.
rate 62. Strait of the English Channel. It extends 15 mi (24 km) between mainland England and the Isle of Wight and varies in width from 2 to 5 mi (3 to 8 km). The submerged valley of a former eastward-flowing river, it is the scene of yacht races and is famous for the naval reviews off Spithead.
rate 63. Danish Øresund; Almost tideless strait between Sjælland island, Denmark and Skåne, Sweden, connecting the Kattegat Strait with the Baltic Sea. It is one of the busiest sea lanes in the world, though ice sometimes impedes navigation in severe winters. Three large islands within it divide the waters into channels. The strait's principal ports are Copenhagen and Helsingør in Denmark and Malmö and Hälsingborg in Sweden.
rate 64. Daily periodical published in London by Richard Steele and Joseph Addison from March 1, 1711, to Dec. 6, 1712 and revived by Addison in 1714 (for 80 issues). It succeeded The Tatler, launched by Steele in 1709. Aiming to "enliven morality with wit and to temper wit with morality," The Spectator presented a fictional club whose imaginary members expressed the writers' ideas about society. It made serious discussion of letters and politics a normal pastime of the leisured class, set the pattern and established the vogue for the periodical in the 18th century and helped create a receptive public for novelists.
rate 65. German; "The Mirror"; Weekly newsmagazine, preeminent in Germany and one of the best and most widely circulated in Europe. Founded in 1946 as Diese Woche ("This Week") and published in Hamburg since 1947, it is respected both for its news coverage and analysis and for its concise writing. It is especially renowned for its aggressive exposés of government malpractice and scandals and for its photography. It resembles Time and Newsweek in format but is usually much thicker.
rate 66. Newspaper for United States military personnel. It first appeared in single editions during the American Civil War and was revived as a weekly for troops in Europe at the end of World War I. Reestablished in 1942, first as a weekly and then a daily, it has been published since then in a European edition and since 1945 in a Pacific edition. It has carried the work of many outstanding writers, editors, cartoonists and photographers. An authorized, unofficial publication of the Department of Defense, it is relatively free of military censorship and control.
rate 67. officially Republic of the Sudan; Country, North Africa. Area: 966,757 sq mi (2,503,890 sq km). Population (2002 estimated): 37,090,000. Capital: Khartoum. Muslim Arab ethnic groups live in the northern and central two-thirds of the country, while Dinka, Nuer and Zande peoples live in the south. Languages: Arabic (official), Beja, Zande, Dinka. Religions: Islam (official), traditional religions, Christianity. Currency: Sudanese dinar. The largest country in Africa, The Sudan encompasses an immense plain with the Sahara Desert in the north, sand dunes in the west, semiarid shrub lands in the south-central belt and enormous swamps and tropical rainforests in the south. The Nile River flows the entire length of the country. Wildlife includes lions, leopards, elephants, giraffes and zebras. It has a developing mixed economy based largely on agriculture. One of the largest irrigation projects in the world provides water to farms between the White and the Blue Nile. Chief cash crops are cotton, peanuts and sesame; livestock is also important. Major industries include food processing and cotton ginning. The country is ruled by an Islamic military regime. Evidence of inhabitation dates back tens of thousands of years. From the end of the 4th millennium BC, Nubia (now northern Sudan) periodically came under Egyptian rule and it was part of the kingdom of Cush from the 11th century BC to the 4th century AD. Christian missionaries converted the Sudan's three principal kingdoms during the 6th century AD; these black Christian kingdoms coexisted with their Muslim Arab neighbours in Egypt for centuries, until the influx of Arab immigrants brought about their collapse in the 13th–15th centuries. Egypt had conquered all of the Sudan by 1874 and encouraged British interference in the region; this aroused Muslim opposition and led to the revolt of al-Mahd&#012B;, who captured Khartoum in 1885 and established a Muslim theocracy in the Sudan that lasted until 1898, when his forces were defeated by the British. The British ruled, generally in partnership with Egypt, until the region achieved independence as The Sudan in 1956. Since then the country has fluctuated between ineffective parliamentary government and unstable military rule. The non-Muslim population of the south has engaged in ongoing rebellion against the Muslim-controlled government of the north, leading to famines and the displacement of some four million people.
rate 68. born August 30, 1884, Fleräng, near Gävle, Swed. died February 25, 1971, &#00D6;rebro; Swedish chemist. He won a Nobel Prize in 1926 for his studies in the chemistry of colloids and for his invention of the ultracentrifuge, which has become invaluable to research in biochemistry and other areas. Svedberg used it to determine precisely the molecular weights of highly complex proteins (e.g., hemoglobin). Later he made studies in nuclear chemistry, contributed to the improvement of the cyclotron and helped his student Arne Tiselius (1902–71) develop electrophoresis.
rate 69. Daily newspaper published in London, one of Britain's oldest and most influential and one of the world's greatest newspapers. Founded by John I. Walter in 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, it became The Times in 1788, publishing commercial news and notices along with some scandal. By the mid-1800s it had developed into a widely respected national journal and daily historical record. Late in the 19th century its reputation and circulation declined, but it returned to financial security after being bought by Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe (1908) and its preeminence in editorial matters and news coverage was reestablished under the editorship of William Haley (1952–67). In 1981 it was bought by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation.
rate 70. Canadian newspaper, generally ranked as the country's largest. Established in 1892 by 25 printers who had lost their jobs in a labour dispute, it became prosperous after its purchase in 1899 by a group of leading citizens and maintained a liberal editorial outlook, pressing for social change while promoting stronger Canadian nationhood and a greater presence in international affairs. It established its own radio station in 1922. Its outspoken opposition to Nazism made it the first North American newspaper to be banned in Nazi Germany.
rate 71. U.S. daily national newspaper, the most influential American business-oriented paper and one of the most respected dailies in the world. Founded in 1889 by Charles H. Dow, founder of Dow Jones & Co., it quickly won success. Beginning in the Great Depression, the Wall Street Journal began to feature more articles, reviews and opinion on other subjects. Published in New York City and with regional editions printed across the country, it has one of the highest daily circulations of any United States newspaper. It is also published in Asian, European and other special editions.
rate 72. Morning daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C., the dominant paper in the United States capital and one of the nation's leading newspapers. Established in 1877 as a Democratic Party organ, it changed orientation and ownership several times and faced constant economic problems until financier Eugene Meyer (1875–1959) purchased it in 1933. Under the leadership of Meyer, his son-in-law Philip L. Graham (publisher from 1946 until his death in 1963) and his daughter, Katharine Graham (publisher from 1969–79), it acquired domestic and international prestige, especially in its coverage of the Watergate scandal. Donald E. Graham was named publisher in 1979. The newspaper is known for its sound and independent editorial stance and thorough, accurate reporting.
rate 73. also called the bends or caisson disease; Harmful effects of rapid change from a higher-to a lower-pressure environment. Small amounts of the gases in air are dissolved in body tissues. When pilots of unpressurized aircraft go to high altitudes or when divers breathing compressed air return to the surface, external pressure on the body decreases and the gases come out of solution. Rising slowly allows the gases to enter the bloodstream and be taken to the lungs and exhaled; with a quicker ascent, the gases (mostly nitrogen) form bubbles in the tissues. In the nervous system, they can cause paralysis, convulsions, motor and sensory problems and psychological changes; in the joints, severe pain and restricted mobility (the bends); in the respiratory system, coughing and difficulty breathing. Severe cases include shock. Recompression in a hyperbaric chamber followed by gradual decompression cannot always reverse tissue damage.
 
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